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Missouri Theft Laws
Missouri Theft Laws
570.030. 1. A person commits the crime of stealing if he or she appropriates property or services of another with the purpose to deprive him or her thereof, either without his or her consent or by means of deceit or coercion.
2. Evidence of the following is admissible in any criminal prosecution pursuant to this section on the issue of the requisite knowledge or belief of the alleged stealer:
(1) That he or she failed or refused to pay for property or services of a hotel, restaurant, inn or boardinghouse;
(2) That he or she gave in payment for property or services of a hotel, restaurant, inn or boardinghouse a check or negotiable paper on which payment was refused;
(3) That he or she left the hotel, restaurant, inn or boardinghouse with the intent to not pay for property or services;
(4) That he or she surreptitiously removed or attempted to remove his or her baggage from a hotel, inn or boardinghouse;
(5) That he or she, with intent to cheat or defraud a retailer, possesses, uses, utters, transfers, makes, alters, counterfeits, or reproduces a retail sales receipt, price tag, or universal price code label, or possesses with intent to cheat or defraud, the device that manufactures fraudulent receipts or universal price code labels.
3. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any offense in which the value of property or services is an element is a class C felony if:
(1) The value of the property or services appropriated is five hundred dollars or more but less than twenty-five thousand dollars; or
(2) The actor physically takes the property appropriated from the person of the victim; or
(3) The property appropriated consists of:
(a) Any motor vehicle, watercraft or aircraft; or
(b) Any will or unrecorded deed affecting real property; or
(c) Any credit card or letter of credit; or
(d) Any firearms; or
(e) A United States national flag designed, intended and used for display on buildings or stationary flagstaffs in the open; or
(f) Any original copy of an act, bill or resolution, introduced or acted upon by the legislature of the state of Missouri; or
(g) Any pleading, notice, judgment or any other record or entry of any court of this state, any other state or of the United States; or
(h) Any book of registration or list of voters required by chapter 115, RSMo; or
(i) Any animal of the species of horse, mule, ass, cattle, swine, sheep, or goat; or
(j) Live fish raised for commercial sale with a value of seventy-five dollars; or
(k) Any controlled substance as defined by section 195.010, RSMo; or
(l) Anhydrous ammonia;
(m) Ammonium nitrate; or
(n) Any document of historical significance which has fair market value of five hundred dollars or more.
4. If an actor appropriates any material with a value less than five hundred dollars in violation of this section with the intent to use such material to manufacture, compound, produce, prepare, test or analyze amphetamine or methamphetamine or any of their analogues, then such violation is a class C felony. The theft of any amount of anhydrous ammonia or liquid nitrogen, or any attempt to steal any amount of anhydrous ammonia or liquid nitrogen, is a class B felony. The theft of any amount of anhydrous ammonia by appropriation of a tank truck, tank trailer, rail tank car, bulk storage tank, field (nurse) tank or field applicator is a class A felony.
5. The theft of any item of property or services pursuant to subsection 3 of this section which exceeds five hundred dollars may be considered a separate felony and may be charged in separate counts.
6. Any person with a prior conviction of paragraph (i) of subdivision (3) of subsection 3 of this section and who violates the provisions of paragraph (i) of subdivision (3) of subsection 3 of this section when the value of the animal or animals stolen exceeds three thousand dollars is guilty of a class B felony.
7. Any offense in which the value of property or services is an element is a class B felony if the value of the property or services equals or exceeds twenty-five thousand dollars.
8. Any violation of this section for which no other penalty is specified in this section is a class A misdemeanor.
Stealing, third offense.
570.040. 1. Every person who has previously pled guilty or been found guilty on two separate occasions of a stealing-related offense where such offenses occurred within ten years of the date of occurrence of the present offense and where the person received a sentence of ten days or more on such previous offense and who subsequently pleads guilty or is found guilty of a stealing-related offense is guilty of a class D felony, unless the subsequent plea or guilty verdict is pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision (3) of subsection 3 of section 570.030, in which case the person shall be guilty of a class B felony, and shall be punished accordingly.
2. As used in this section, the term "stealing-related offense" shall include federal and state violations of criminal statutes against stealing or buying or receiving stolen property and shall also include municipal ordinances against same if the defendant was either represented by counsel or knowingly waived counsel in writing and the judge accepting the plea or making the findings was a licensed attorney at the time of the court proceedings.
3. Evidence of prior guilty pleas or findings of guilt shall be heard by the court, out of the hearing of the jury, prior to the submission of the case to the jury, and the court shall determine the existence of the prior guilty pleas or findings of guilt.
Identity theft--penalty--restitution--other civil remedies available--exempted activities.
570.223. 1. A person commits the crime of identity theft if he or she knowingly and with the intent to deceive or defraud obtains, possesses, transfers, uses, or attempts to obtain, transfer or use, one or more means of identification not lawfully issued for his or her use.
2. The term "means of identification" as used in this section includes, but is not limited to, the following:
(1) Social Security numbers;
(2) Drivers license numbers;
(3) Checking account numbers;
(4) Savings account numbers;
(5) Credit card numbers;
(6) Debit card numbers;
(7) Personal identification (PIN) code;
(8) Electronic identification numbers;
(9) Digital signatures;
(10) Any other numbers or information that can be used to access a person's financial resources;
(11) Biometric data;
(14) Parent's legal surname prior to marriage;
(15) Passports; or
(16) Birth certificates.
3. A person found guilty of identity theft shall be punished as follows:
(1) Identity theft or attempted identity theft which does not result in the theft or appropriation of credit, money, goods, services, or other property is a class B misdemeanor;
(2) Identity theft which results in the theft or appropriation of credit, money, goods, services, or other property not exceeding five hundred dollars in value is a class A misdemeanor;
(3) Identity theft which results in the theft or appropriation of credit, money, goods, services, or other property exceeding five hundred dollars and not exceeding five thousand dollars in value is a class C felony;
(4) Identity theft which results in the theft or appropriation of credit, money, goods, services, or other property exceeding five thousand dollars and not exceeding fifty thousand dollars in value is a class B felony;
(5) Identity theft which results in the theft or appropriation of credit, money, goods, services, or other property exceeding fifty thousand dollars in value is a class A felony.
4. In addition to the provisions of subsection 3 of this section, the court may order that the defendant make restitution to any victim of the offense. Restitution may include payment for any costs, including attorney fees, incurred by the victim:
(1) In clearing the credit history or credit rating of the victim; and
(2) In connection with any civil or administrative proceeding to satisfy any debt, lien, or other obligation of the victim arising from the actions of the defendant.
5. In addition to the criminal penalties in subsections 3 and 4 of this section, any person who commits an act made unlawful by subsection 1 of this section shall be liable to the person to whom the identifying information belonged for civil damages of up to five thousand dollars for each incident, or three times the amount of actual damages, whichever amount is greater. A person damaged as set forth in subsection 1 of this section may also institute a civil action to enjoin and restrain future acts that would constitute a violation of subsection 1 of this section. The court, in an action brought under this subsection, may award reasonable attorneys' fees to the plaintiff.
6. If the identifying information of a deceased person is used in a manner made unlawful by subsection 1 of this section, the deceased person's estate shall have the right to recover damages pursuant to subsection 5 of this section.
7. Civil actions under this section must be brought within five years from the date on which the identity of the wrongdoer was discovered or reasonably should have been discovered.
8. Civil action pursuant to this section does not depend on whether a criminal prosecution has been or will be instituted for the acts that are the subject of the civil action. The rights and remedies provided by this section are in addition to any other rights and remedies provided by law.
9. This section and section 570.224 shall not apply to the following activities:
(1) A person obtains the identity of another person to misrepresent his or her age for the sole purpose of obtaining alcoholic beverages, tobacco, going to a gaming establishment, or another privilege denied to minors. Nothing in this subdivision shall affect the provisions of subsection 10 of this section;
(2) A person obtains means of identification or information in the course of a bona fide consumer or commercial transaction;
(3) A person exercises, in good faith, a security interest or right of offset by a creditor or financial institution;
(4) A person complies, in good faith, with any warrant, court order, levy, garnishment, attachment, or other judicial or administrative order, decree, or directive, when any party is required to do so;
(5) A person is otherwise authorized by law to engage in the conduct that is the subject of the prosecution.
10. Any person who obtains, transfers, or uses any means of identification for the purpose of manufacturing and providing or selling a false identification card to a person under the age of twenty-one for the purpose of purchasing or obtaining alcohol shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
11. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection 3 of this section, every person who has previously pled guilty to or been found guilty of identity theft or attempted identity theft, and who subsequently pleads guilty to or is found guilty of identity theft or attempted identity theft of credit, money, goods, services, or other property not exceeding five hundred dollars in value is guilty of a class D felony and shall be punished accordingly.
12. The value of property or services is its highest value by any reasonable standard at the time the identity theft is committed. Any reasonable standard includes, but is not limited to, market value within the community, actual value, or replacement value.
13. If credit, property, or services are obtained by two or more acts from the same person or location, or from different persons by two or more acts which occur in approximately the same location or time period so that the identity thefts are attributable to a single scheme, plan, or conspiracy, the acts may be considered as a single identity theft and the value may be the total value of all credit, property, and services involved.
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Please note, the theft law information on this page is provided as a courtesy to help explain theft, shoplifting and stealing laws. There is no guarantee or assurance of reliability or validity. Laws change over time and this page may or may not be current. The code that is provided on this site is an unofficial posting of the State Codes. The files making up this Internet version of the State Codes do not constitute the official text of the State Codes and are intended for informational purposes only. No representation is made as to the accuracy or completeness of these sections. While every effort was made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the statutes available Offender Solutions™ shall not be liable or held responsible for any errors or omissions which may occur in these files, they are provided on an "As Is" basis. Use of the information and services are at the sole risk of the user. For official versions of any state's current laws, the user is directed to that states Revised Statutes, all amendments and cumulative supplements thereto published by that state. Please notify the Webmaster if you find any irregularities in the statutes on this web site. The Webmaster will relay the information to appropriate staff to investigate the irregularities. The printed version of the State Codes should be consulted for all matters requiring reliance on the statutory text. If you were involved in a theft or shoplifting incident you are encouraged to consider taking a theft cloass, theft course or shoplifting education class such as the one provided by offender solutions. Research shows theft school and/or theft education can be an effective theft prevention. Offender Solutions™ is an online theft education, shoplifting education class about stealing, it can be very effective if you want to stop stealing. Evan it was a small theft, a petty theft class or petty theft school could be right for you!
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SHOPLIFTING THEFT STEALING
Shoplifting is not a crime, it is a euphemism for the word stealing or theft, and theft is a crime. I'm not sure why our culture allowed the word "theft" to be different for someone who steals from a store, but the effect has been to minimize its seriousness in the mind of the shoplifter, our society and, interestingly, the police. It would seem logical for someone who is shoplifting to minimize the seriousness of this crime by calling it "shoplifting", but for the police to be swayed to this way of thinking is no less sacrilegious than for an American citizen to allow the euphemism, "casualty of war" to replace the word "death", minimizing the sacrifices of our Veterans.
The same point can be made of the term "petty theft". Doesn't the word "petty" conjure up notions of insignificance, unimportance and irrelevance? It almost appears the police and our society have fallen victim to a very successful propaganda campaign intending to minimize the seriousness of theft from a store by calling it "shoplifting". Actually, if you take time to think about it, whether the item is stolen from a store, your employer, or, has great or small value, it is still stealing. It is also a statement about the shoplifters character.
I don't work for a store or retailer and I do not spend my time trying to show retailers how to better protect themselves from shoplifting with cameras, mirrors, electronic tags, security personnel, etc. I spend my time helping theft offenders think through their actions, attitudes, values and beliefs. Working with most people who steal is not all that difficult. What I have discovered through theft offender counseling is that most theft offenders have relatively transparent thinking errors. For example, if you believed 2 + 3 equals 6 you would have a thinking error. Your thinking error would not readily be identified, (How often do you do math out loud or in front of someone, and, to take it even further, how many people are willing to confront you with your math error?). However, once this thinking error is identified, you would be quick to self correct.
There is also such a thing as a "cultural thinking error." One common cultural thinking error occurs when we minimize the impact of shoplifting by buying into the notion that if someone is "shoplifting", he must be a victim. Common cultural thinking errors are that theft offenders are victims of poverty, poor parenting, hunger, alcohol and drugs, ADHD, peer pressure, etc. The fact is, most people who steal from stores are none of the above and, all people who choose to steal from stores have options to stealing. Oh, kleptomania you say?
People who are shoplifting are not all that different from you and I. Simply stated, the primary differences include, 1) an overdose of selfishness, 2) a stronger than normal attraction to the forbidden, 3) thinking errors you and I don't have, and, most of all, 4) they don't self punish the thought of stealing.