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Iowa Theft Laws
Iowa Theft Laws
714.1 Theft defined.
A person commits theft when the person does any of the following:
1. Takes possession or control of the property of another, or property in the possession of another, with the intent to deprive the other thereof.
2. Misappropriates property which the person has in trust, or property of another which the person has in the person's possession or control, whether such possession or control is lawful or unlawful, by using or disposing of it in a manner which is inconsistent with or a denial of the trust or of the owner's rights in such property, or conceals found property, or appropriates such property to the person's own use, when the owner of such property is known to the person.
a. Failure by a bailee or lessee of personal property to return the property within seventy-two hours after a time specified in a written agreement of lease or bailment shall be evidence of misappropriation.
b. If a time is not specified in the written agreement of lease or bailment for the expiration or termination of the lease or bailment or for the return of the personal property, failure by a lessee or bailee to return the property within five days after proper notice to the lessee or bailee shall be evidence of misappropriation. For the purposes of this paragraph, "proper notice" means a written notice of the expiration or termination of the lease or bailment agreement sent to the lessee or bailee by certified or restricted certified mail at the address of the lessee or bailee specified in the agreement. The notice shall be considered effective on the date of the mailing of the notice regardless of whether or not the lessee or bailee signs a receipt for the notice.
3. Obtains the labor or services of another, or a transfer of possession, control, or ownership of the property of another, or the beneficial use of property of another, by deception. Where compensation for goods and services is ordinarily paid immediately upon the obtaining of such goods or the rendering of such services, the refusal to pay or leaving the premises without payment or offer to pay or without having obtained from the owner or operator the right to pay subsequent to leaving the premises gives rise to an inference that the goods or services were obtained by deception.
4. Exercises control over stolen property, knowing such property to have been stolen, or having reasonable cause to believe that such property has been stolen, unless the person's purpose is to promptly restore it to the owner or to deliver it to an appropriate public officer. The fact that the person is found in possession of property which has been stolen from two or more persons on separate occasions, or that the person is a dealer or other person familiar with the value of such property and has acquired it for a consideration which is far below its reasonable value, shall be evidence from which the court or jury may infer that the person knew or believed that the property had been stolen.
5. Takes, destroys, conceals or disposes of property in which someone else has a security interest, with intent to defraud the secured party.
6. Makes, utters, draws, delivers, or gives any check, share draft, draft, or written order on any bank, credit union, person, or corporation, and obtains property, the use of property, including rental property, or service in exchange for such instrument, if the person knows that such check, share draft, draft, or written order will not be paid when presented.
Whenever the drawee of such instrument has refused payment because of insufficient funds, and the maker has not paid the holder of the instrument the amount due thereon within ten days of the maker's receipt of notice from the holder that payment has been refused by the drawee, the court or jury may infer from such facts that the maker knew that the instrument would not be paid on presentation. Notice of refusal of payment shall be by certified mail, or by personal service in the manner prescribed for serving original notices.
Whenever the drawee of such instrument has refused payment because the maker has no account with the drawee, the court or jury may infer from such fact that the maker knew that the instrument would not be paid on presentation.
7. Obtains gas, electricity or water from a public utility or obtains cable television or telephone service from an unauthorized connection to the supply or service line or by intentionally altering, adjusting, removing or tampering with the metering or service device so as to cause inaccurate readings.
8. Knowingly and without authorization accesses or causes to be accessed a computer, computer system, or computer network, or any part thereof, for the purpose of obtaining computer services, information, or property or knowingly and without authorization and with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of possession, takes, transfers, conceals, or retains possession of a computer, computer system, or computer network or any computer software or computer program, or computer data contained in a computer, computer system, or computer network.
9. a. Obtains the temporary use of video rental property with the intent to deprive the owner of the use and possession of the video rental property without the consent of the owner.
b. Lawfully obtains the temporary use of video rental property and fails to return the video rental property by the agreed time with the intent to deprive the owner of the use and possession of the video rental property without the consent of the owner. The aggregate value of the video rental property involved shall be the original retail value of the video rental property.
10. Any act that is declared to be theft by any provision of the Code.
714.2 Degrees of theft .
1. The theft of property exceeding ten thousand dollars in value, or the theft of property from the person of another, or from a building which has been destroyed or left unoccupied because of physical disaster, riot, bombing, or the proximity of battle, or the theft of property which has been removed from a building because of a physical disaster, riot, bombing, or the proximity of battle, is theft in the first degree. Theft in the first degree is a class "C" felony.
2. The theft of property exceeding one thousand dollars but not exceeding ten thousand dollars in value or theft of a motor vehicle as defined in chapter 321 not exceeding ten thousand dollars in value, is theft in the second degree. Theft in the second degree is a class "D" felony. However, for purposes of this subsection, "motor vehicle" does not include a motorized bicycle as defined in section 321.1 , subsection 40, paragraph "b" .
3. The theft of property exceeding five hundred dollars but not exceeding one thousand dollars in value, or the theft of any property not exceeding five hundred dollars in value by one who has before been twice convicted of theft , is theft in the third degree. Theft in the third degree is an aggravated misdemeanor.
4. The theft of property exceeding two hundred dollars in value but not exceeding five hundred dollars in value is theft in the fourth degree. Theft in the fourth degree is a serious misdemeanor.
714.8 Fraudulent practices defined.
A person who does any of the following acts is guilty of a fraudulent practice:
1. Makes, tenders or keeps for sale any warehouse receipt, bill of lading, or any other instrument purporting to represent any right to goods, with knowledge that the goods represented by such instrument do not exist.
2. Knowingly attaches or alters any label to any goods offered or kept for sale so as to materially misrepresent the quality or quantity of such goods, or the maker or source of such goods.
3. Knowingly executes or tenders a false certification under penalty of perjury, false affidavit, or false certificate, if the certification, affidavit, or certificate is required by law or given in support of a claim for compensation, indemnification, restitution, or other payment.
4. Makes any entry in or alteration of any public records, or any records of any corporation, partnership, or other business enterprise or nonprofit enterprise, knowing the same to be false.
5. Removes, alters or defaces any serial or other identification number, or any owners' identification mark, from any property not the person's own.
6. For the purpose of soliciting assistance, contributions, or other thing of value, falsely represents oneself to be a veteran of the armed forces of the United States, or a member of any fraternal, religious, charitable, or veterans organization, or any pretended organization of a similar nature, or to be acting on behalf of such person or organization.
7. Manufactures, sells, or keeps for sale any token or device suitable for the operation of a coin-operated device or vending machine, with the intent that such token or device may be so used, or with the representation that they can be so used; provided, that the owner or operator of any coin-operated device or vending machine may sell slugs or tokens for use in the person's own devices.
8. Manufactures or possesses any false or counterfeit label, with the intent that it be placed on merchandise to falsely identify its origin or quality, or who sells any such false or counterfeit label with the representation that it may be so used.
9. Alters or renders inoperative or inaccurate any meter or measuring device used in determining the value of or compensation for the purchase, use or enjoyment of property, with the intent to defraud any person.
10. Does any act expressly declared to be a fraudulent practice by any other section of the Code.
11. Removes, defaces, covers, alters, or destroys any component part number as defined in section 321.1 , vehicle identification number as defined in section 321.1 , or product identification number as defined in section 321.1 , for the purpose of concealing or misrepresenting the identity or year of manufacture of the component part or vehicle.
12. Knowingly transfers or assigns a legal or equitable interest in property, as defined in section 702.14 , for less than fair consideration, with the intent to obtain public assistance under chapters 16 , 35B , 35D , and 347B , or Title VI, subtitles 2 through 6, or accepts a transfer of or an assignment of a legal or equitable interest in property, as defined in section 702.14 , for less than fair consideration, with the intent of enabling the party transferring the property to obtain public assistance under chapters 16 , 35B , 35D , and 347B , or Title VI, subtitles 2 through 6. A transfer or assignment of property for less than fair consideration within one year prior to an application for public assistance benefits shall be evidence of intent to transfer or assign the property in order to obtain public assistance for which a person is not eligible by reason of the amount of the person's assets. If a person is found guilty of a fraudulent practice in the transfer or assignment of property under this subsection the maximum sentence shall be the penalty established for a serious misdemeanor and sections 714.9 , 714.10 and 714.11 shall not apply.
13. Fraudulent practices in connection with targeted small business programs.
a. Knowingly transfers or assigns assets, ownership, or equitable interest in property of a business to a woman or minority person primarily for the purpose of obtaining benefits under targeted small business programs if the transferor would otherwise not be qualified for such programs.
b. Solicits and is awarded a state contract on behalf of a targeted small business for the purpose of transferring the contract to another for a percentage if the person transferring or intending to transfer the work had no intention of performing the work.
c. Knowingly falsifying information on an application for the purpose of obtaining benefits under targeted small business programs.
A violation under this subsection is grounds for decertification of the targeted small business connected with the violation. Decertification shall be in addition to any penalty otherwise authorized by this section.
14. Makes payment pursuant to an agreement with a dealer or market agency for livestock held by the dealer or market agency by use of a financial instrument which is a check, share draft, draft, or written order on any financial institution, as defined in section 203C.1 , if after seven days from the date that possession of the livestock is transferred pursuant to the purchase, the financial institution refuses payment on the instrument because of insufficient funds in the maker's account.
This subsection is not applicable if the maker pays the holder of the instrument the amount due on the instrument within one business day from a receipt of notice by certified mail from the holder that payment has been refused by the financial institution.
As used in this subsection, "dealer" means a person engaged in the business of buying or selling livestock, either on the person's own account, or as an employee or agent of a vendor or purchaser. "Market agency" means a person engaged in the business of buying or selling livestock on a commission basis.
15. Obtains or attempts to obtain the transfer of possession, control, or ownership, of the property of another by deception through communications conducted primarily by telephone and involving direct or implied claims that the other person contacted has won or is about to win a prize, or involving direct or implied claims that the other person contacted may be able to recover any losses suffered by such other person in connection with a prize promotion.
16. Knowingly provides false information to the treasurer of state when claiming, pursuant to section 556.19 , an interest in unclaimed property held by the state, or knowingly provides false information to a person or fails to disclose the nature, value, and location of unclaimed property prior to entering into a contract to receive compensation to recover or assist in the recovery of property reported as unclaimed pursuant to section 556.11 .
17. A packer who includes a confidentiality provision in a contract with a livestock seller in violation of section 202A.4 .
18. Manufactures, creates, reproduces, alters, possesses, uses, transfers, or otherwise knowingly contributes to the production or use of a fraudulent retail sales receipt or universal price code label with intent to defraud another person engaged in the business of retailing.
For purposes of this subsection:
a. "Retail sales receipt" means a document intended to evidence payment for goods or services.
b. "Universal price code label" means the unique ten-digit bar code placed on the packaging of an item that may be used for purposes including but not limited to tracking inventory, maintaining price information in a computerized database, and serving as proof of purchase of a particular item.
19. A contractor who enforces a provision in a production contract that provides that information contained in the production contract is confidential as provided in section 202.3 .
20. A contract seller who intentionally provides inaccurate information with regard to any matter required to be disclosed under section 558.70 , subsection 1, or section 558A.4 .
714.9 Fraudulent practice in the first degree.
Fraudulent practice in the first degree is a fraudulent practice where the amount of money or value of property involved exceeds ten thousand dollars.
Fraudulent practice in the first degree is a class "C" felony.
714.10 Fraudulent practice in the second degree.
Fraudulent practice in the second degree is the following:
1. A fraudulent practice where the amount of money or value of property or services involved exceeds one thousand dollars but does not exceed ten thousand dollars.
2. A fraudulent practice where the amount of money or value of property or services involved does not exceed one thousand dollars by one who has been convicted of a fraudulent practice twice before.
Fraudulent practice in the second degree is a class "D" felony.
714.11 Fraudulent practice in the third degree.
Fraudulent practice in the third degree is the following:
1. A fraudulent practice where the amount of money or value of property or service involved exceeds five hundred dollars but does not exceed one thousand dollars.
2. A fraudulent practice as set forth in section 714.8 , subsections 2, 8 and 9.
3. A fraudulent practice where it is not possible to determine an amount of money or value of property and service involved.
Fraudulent practice in the third degree is an aggravated misdemeanor.
714.12 Fraudulent practice in the fourth degree.
Fraudulent practice in the fourth degree is a fraudulent practice where the amount of money or value of property or services involved exceeds two hundred dollars but does not exceed five hundred dollars.
Fraudulent practice in the fourth degree is a serious misdemeanor.
714.13 Fraudulent practice in the fifth degree.
Fraudulent practice in the fifth degree is a fraudulent practice where the amount of money or value of property or services involved does not exceed two hundred dollars.
Fraudulent practice in the fifth degree is a simple misdemeanor.
take a theft class * take a shoplifting class * take a theft class * take a petit theft class * take a theft class * a shoplifting course
Please note, the theft law information on this page is provided as a courtesy to help explain theft, shoplifting and stealing laws. There is no guarantee or assurance of reliability or validity. Laws change over time and this page may or may not be current. The code that is provided on this site is an unofficial posting of the State Codes. The files making up this Internet version of the State Codes do not constitute the official text of the State Codes and are intended for informational purposes only. No representation is made as to the accuracy or completeness of these sections. While every effort was made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the statutes available Offender Solutions™ shall not be liable or held responsible for any errors or omissions which may occur in these files, they are provided on an "As Is" basis. Use of the information and services are at the sole risk of the user. For official versions of any state's current laws, the user is directed to that states Revised Statutes, all amendments and cumulative supplements thereto published by that state. Please notify the Webmaster if you find any irregularities in the statutes on this web site. The Webmaster will relay the information to appropriate staff to investigate the irregularities. The printed version of the State Codes should be consulted for all matters requiring reliance on the statutory text. If you were involved in a theft or shoplifting incident you are encouraged to consider taking a theft cloass, theft course or shoplifting education class such as the one provided by offender solutions. Research shows theft school and/or theft education can be an effective theft prevention. Offender Solutions™ is an online theft education, shoplifting education class about stealing, it can be very effective if you want to stop stealing. Evan it was a small theft, a petty theft class or petty theft school could be right for you!
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SHOPLIFTING THEFT STEALING
Shoplifting is not a crime, it is a euphemism for the word stealing or theft, and theft is a crime. I'm not sure why our culture allowed the word "theft" to be different for someone who steals from a store, but the effect has been to minimize its seriousness in the mind of the shoplifter, our society and, interestingly, the police. It would seem logical for someone who is shoplifting to minimize the seriousness of this crime by calling it "shoplifting", but for the police to be swayed to this way of thinking is no less sacrilegious than for an American citizen to allow the euphemism, "casualty of war" to replace the word "death", minimizing the sacrifices of our Veterans.
The same point can be made of the term "petty theft". Doesn't the word "petty" conjure up notions of insignificance, unimportance and irrelevance? It almost appears the police and our society have fallen victim to a very successful propaganda campaign intending to minimize the seriousness of theft from a store by calling it "shoplifting". Actually, if you take time to think about it, whether the item is stolen from a store, your employer, or, has great or small value, it is still stealing. It is also a statement about the shoplifters character.
I don't work for a store or retailer and I do not spend my time trying to show retailers how to better protect themselves from shoplifting with cameras, mirrors, electronic tags, security personnel, etc. I spend my time helping theft offenders think through their actions, attitudes, values and beliefs. Working with most people who steal is not all that difficult. What I have discovered through theft offender counseling is that most theft offenders have relatively transparent thinking errors. For example, if you believed 2 + 3 equals 6 you would have a thinking error. Your thinking error would not readily be identified, (How often do you do math out loud or in front of someone, and, to take it even further, how many people are willing to confront you with your math error?). However, once this thinking error is identified, you would be quick to self correct.
There is also such a thing as a "cultural thinking error." One common cultural thinking error occurs when we minimize the impact of shoplifting by buying into the notion that if someone is "shoplifting", he must be a victim. Common cultural thinking errors are that theft offenders are victims of poverty, poor parenting, hunger, alcohol and drugs, ADHD, peer pressure, etc. The fact is, most people who steal from stores are none of the above and, all people who choose to steal from stores have options to stealing. Oh, kleptomania you say?
People who are shoplifting are not all that different from you and I. Simply stated, the primary differences include, 1) an overdose of selfishness, 2) a stronger than normal attraction to the forbidden, 3) thinking errors you and I don't have, and, most of all, 4) they don't self punish the thought of stealing.